History, Memory, Fiction in Mexico

SPN 379: History, Memory, and Fiction in Mexico


Instructor:                  Dr. Brian L. Price (pricebl@wfu.edu)

Office:                        550 Greene Hall

Phone:                                    758-4572

Office Hours:            W 9:00 AM – 12:00 PM

Sec. A:                        T Th 12:30 – 1:45 PM, 513 Greene Hall


Course Description

This course looks at Mexican historical literature and film. As we read and watch these fictions, it is imperative to remember that this course is not a history class. While we will deal with Mexico’s national history in order to understand the context to which authors refer, this course is about cultural representation, and specifically the role played by imaginative fiction in the creation of collective and individual memory and the effect those memories have on contemporary discussions of national identity and culture. Our main objectives are to 1) get critically engaged with different forms of historical representation, 2) become more aware of the arbitrarily constructed nature of historical, fictional, and political discourse, 3) think more objectively about national myths, and 4) elevate our ability to think, read, write, and express ourselves in Spanish.

We begin with a reading of Carlos Fuentes’ short story “Las dos orillas”, a tale based on Bernal Díaz’s La verdadera historia de la conquista that fictionalizes the story of Jerónimo de Aguilar and Gonzalo Guerrero. Coupled with this reading we will then watch La otra conquista, a film about indigenous resistance to the imposition of Spanish colonial impositions. Fast-forward a century and we take up the story of Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, the celebrated nun whose poetry and letters have been widely read for their feminist denunciations of patriarchal hierarchies, in María Luisa Bemberg’s film Yo, la peor del mundo.

After these two colonialist films, we step more boldly into the 19th century and into the world of historical novels with Jorge Ibargüengoitia’s riotous novel, Los pasos de López, a raucous parody of the Mexico’s failed bid for independence that invites us to question how we tell our national stories, who we pick for our great heroes, and how honest we should really be when passing this information along to future generations. Immediately thereafter, however, we will see how that same history — namely the story of Father Miguel Hidalgo’s cry for liberation from Spanish rule — has been remarketed to a broad national audience through Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada, a government-subsidized film that was launched on the 200th anniversary of Mexican independence.

Following the midterm, we will tackle the second half of the nineteenth century by looking at the French Intervention and Second Empire of 1860s in Fernando del Paso’s Noticias del imperio. It’s a monumental novel — don’t worry, we’re not reading the whole 900 pages — and we will focus the three central characters: Carlota, the demented former empress of Mexico; Benito Juárez, the legitimately elected president and paladin of Mexican liberalism; and Maximilian, the hapless Habsburg emperor who thought he could really become a Mexican citizen. We will then look at an alternate, steampunk version of this story, “La bestia ha muerto” by Bernardo Fernández (Bef).

This same odd coupling — fiction based rich historical investigation and alternative history — will help up look into the flawed assassination attempt against the dictator Porfirio Díaz. First we will look at the recent film, El atentado, based on Álvaro Uribe’s novel El expediente del atentado, and then at Ignacio Solares’ alternate history “Asesinato del presidente Díaz.”

The final section of the course will address the seminal event of 20th century Mexican history: the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920). And again we will read a novel and see a film. The last novel we will read is Cristina Rivera Garza’s novel Nadie me verá llorar which takes place between 1900 and 1920, during the Mexican Revolution. Unlike most Mexican texts dealing with that time period, this novel really has little to do with the revolution. It does, however, emphasize histories that are typically subsumed by the war, namely histories about individual states, the mining industry, the production of vanilla, prostitution, medical and social positivism, and Mexico’s mental health system. We will close out the course with Luis Estrada’s La ley de Herodes, a film about the consolidation of post-revolutionary power that was is so critical of the PRI party that it was censored.



Reading Schedule


Semana 1.

Fecha Preparación En clase
19 ene.   Introducción a la clase


Semana 2.

24 ene. Linda Hutcheon. “Historiographic Metafiction.” G1 précis Carlos Fuentes. “Las dos orillas.”

G1 précis

26 ene. Oswaldo Estrada. “Diálogos con la nueva ficción histórica.” La imaginación novelesca. Bernal Díaz entre géneros y épocas. (packet) Carlos Fuentes. “Las dos orillas.”


Semana 3.

31 ene. Miriam Haddu. “The Power of Looking: Politics and the Gaze Salvador Carrasco’s La otra conquista.” (packet) G2 précis La otra conquista.

G2 précis

2 feb. Santiago Velazco. “La guerra de imágenes en La otra conquista de Salvador Carrasco.” (packet) La otra conquista.

G1 film review


Semana 4.

7 feb. Sor Juana. Fragment from “Respuesta a sor Filotea” (packet)

Rosa Sarabia. “Sor Juana o las trampas de la restitución.” (online) G3 précis

María Luisa Bemberg. Yo, la peor.

G3 précis

9 feb. Omar Rodríguez. “Poder, institución y género en Yo, la peor de todas.” (online) María Luisa Bemberg. Yo, la peor.

G2 film review


Semana 5.

14 feb. Fernando Aínsa. “La nueva novela histórica latinoamericana.” (packet) G4 précis Jorge Ibargüengoitia. Los pasos de López.

G4 précis

16 feb.   Jorge Ibargüengoitia. Los pasos de López.


Semana 6.

21 feb.   Jorge Ibargüengoitia. Los pasos de López.
23 feb.   Jorge Ibargüengoitia. Los pasos de López.


Semana 7.

28 feb. Hidalgo trailer (video)

Enrique Krause. “Hidalgo enamorado.” (online)

Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada.

G3 film review

1 mar.   No hay clase. El profesor estará de viaje.


Semana 8.

6 mar.   Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada.
8 mar. Estudiar.

Mid-term Exam


Semana 9. Spring Break


Semana 10.

20 mar. Seymour Menton. “The Instant Canonization of a Bakhtinian Symphony.” Latin America’s New Historical Novel. (packet)

G1 précis

Fernando del Paso. Noticias del imperio.

Carlota chapters (I, XXIII).

G1 précis

22 mar.   Fernando del Paso. Noticias del imperio.

Benito Juárez chapters (II.1, VI.2, XXII.1)


Semana 11.

27 mar. Rodolfo Usigli. “Prólogo” from Corona de sombra (packet).

G2 précis

Fernando del Paso. Noticias del imperio.

Maximiliano chapters (VI.2, X.1, XXII.2) G2 précis

29 mar.   Bernardo Fernández. “La bestia ha muerto.”


Semana 12.

3 apr. Álvaro Uribe. “Expediente del atentado.” (online) El atentado.

Benchmark Thesis & Annotated Biblio.

5 apr.   Ignacio Solares. “Asesinato del presidente Díaz.”

G4 film review.


Semana 13.

10 apr.   Cristina Rivera Garza. Nadie me verá llorar. Ch. 1-2
12 apr.   Cristina Rivera Garza. Nadie me verá llorar. Ch. 3-4


Semana 14.

17 apr.   Cristina Rivera Garza. Nadie me verá llorar. Ch. 5-6

Revised Thesis & Outline

19 apr.   Cristina Rivera Garza. Nadie me verá llorar. Ch. 7-8


Semana 15.

24 apr. Santiago Velazco. “Rojo amanecer y La ley de Herodes: cine político de la transición mexicana.” (packet)

G3 précis

Luis Estrada. La ley de Herodes.

G3 précis

26 apr. Liz Consuelo Rangel. “La ley de Herodes (1999) vs. Río Escondido (1947): La desmitificación del triunfo de la Revolución Mexicana.” (packet)

G4 précis

Luis Estrada. La ley de Herodes.

G4 précis


Semana 16.

4 may. Estudiar. Examen final – 9 AM.


** This reading schedule is subject to change. As a general rule I will adhere to what we have listed here, but I reserve the right to modify the content according to opportunity and necessity.



Online Video Resources

Hidalgo: La historia jamás contada trailer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=50FugCzEoqE

“Bolivia: Leasing the Rain”: http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/bolivia/bolivia220vid.html

“Bolivia Water Wars”: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aTKn17uZRAE



Online Article Resources

Rosa Sarabia. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27763818?origin=api

Omar Rodríguez. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27763819?origin=api

Enrique Krauze. http://letraslibres.com/blogs/blog-de-la-redaccion/hidalgo-enamorado

Álvaro Uribe. http://www.letraslibres.com/revista/convivio/expediente-del-atentado

José de Piérola: http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=4&hid=102&sid=b193d9aa-3be7-4d17-a359-531e5ad8f94c%40sessionmgr104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mzh&AN=2008460511



Class Policies and Grading


Historical fiction writers are not known for their brevity. Indeed, it would appear that thick books resemble a badge of courage, a rite of passage, or an imposition of the genre. Because this is the norm, we must deal with some long texts. When possible, we will read fragments (as in the case of Del Paso’s Noticias del imperio).  There are the blessed few texts, such as Ibargüengoitia’s Los pasos de López, that are both seductively easy reads and short. But don’t be fooled: his humor is incisive and his brevity belies years of thoughts, research, and polishing. Likewise, Again, do not give into the temptation to interpret brevity for lack of serious thought in Borges, whose stories kick this course off. All of these authors require multiple reads. That said, you can expect reading assignments of varying length. I will arrange reading schedules so that heavier loads are expected on Mondays and lighter loads on Wednesdays. You should read every day. To aid you in reading, I will provide reading questions and guides. You are expected to cover all the materials assigned at least once before class. Allow yourself enough time to read and reflect. Last-minute cramming will not suffice.




10%. This is a discussion-based course: your active, informed, and thoughtful participation are requisite to performing well.


Critical précis:



15%. Twice during the semester you will be assigned to write a précis, or critical summary, of an article we read in relation to a text or film.
Film review:


15%. Once during the semester you will be assigned a film to review.
Midterm Exam:



20%. The midterm is scheduled for Thursday, 8 March 2012. It will cover the first half of our readings.
Final Exam: 20%. The final exam is scheduled for May 4, 2009. It will cover the second half of the semester. In this sense, it is not a “comprehensive” exam. It will be comprehensive, however, in that you are required to maintain the concepts and principles discussed earlier in the semester and employ them in discussing later texts.


Final Research Paper: 20%. By midnight on Friday, May 4, VIA EMAIL no less than 8 and no more than 10 pages. Text and topic must have been approved by Professor Price during the stages of development.





Annotated Bibliography and Preliminary Thesis Statement: 5%. Tuesday, 3 April, is the latest date to turn in VIA EMAIL your proposal and list of at least 5 preliminary secondary sources you have used or plan to use in preparation of your research paper. I will email you feedback ASAP. Secondary sources may include articles, book chapters, historiographic essays, etc. You are only allowed one webpage. Annotated means bibliographic citation PLUS commentaries on content and how you think this secondary source will contribute to your topic or argument. I recommend that you start with the research tutorial for Smith Reynolds Library on this path already set in your computer: Start à WFU library research tools à ZSR library research resources à Research Tutorial. Grades will be assigned in the following manner: 9-10 sobresaliente/excepcional; 6-8 notable/superior; 4-5 aprobado/satisfactorio; 0-3 suspenso.


Revised Thesis with Paper Outline and Introductory Paragraph: 5%. Tuesday, 17 April, is the latest date to turn in VIA EMAIL the second version of your thesis statement, outline and introduction for grade and further feedback/comments will be emailed back on Friday, 20 April. You may alter your topic, theme, primary text, etc., up to this date without previous consultation with me. After 20 April, however, the only things that can change without consultation with me are your thesis statement, secondary sources, argument approach, etc. At this point, if you want to totally change your research paper text/topic, you will need to meet with me personally. Grades will be assigned in the following manner: 9-10 sobresaliente/excepcional; 6-8 notable/superior; 4-5 aprobado/satisfactorio; 0-3 suspenso.


Attendance and Timeliness Policy. My philosophy for attendance and timeliness is fairly straightforward. You demonstrate respect and consideration for your professor and classmates by being in class and being in class on time. As such, the absence policy is simple. You are allowed two absences, no questions asked; after that each absence—regardless of reason—will lower your final grade by 5 percentage points. The tardy policy is similar. You are allowed two “freebies” and after that each tardy (or early departure from class) will lower your final grade by 1 percentage point.


Grading Policy According to the WFU Bulletin:


A’s are reserved only for exceptionally high achievement

A-/B+/B are all superior

B-/C+/C are satisfactory and

C-/D+/D/D- are passing but unsatisfactory


The grading scale:    

93-100=A, 90-92=A-, 88-9=B+, 83-87=B, 80-82=B-, 78-9=C+, 73-77=C, 70-72=C-, 68-9=D+, 60-67=D, 0-60=F.


Honor System (definition in the WFU Bulletin)

Wake Forest University upholds the ideals of honor and integrity. The Honor System is central to University life; its essence is a commitment by each person to do what is right and abide by community standards. Each student is pledged to be trustworthy in all matters, and a violation of that trust is an offense against the community as a whole. In the specific terms of the Honor Code, a student pledges in all phases of life not to cheat, plagiarize, engage in other forms of academic misconduct, deceive, or steal. The strength of the Honor System derives from the commitment of each and every student to uphold its ideals.


Honor Code As It Applies To This Course

Any written work turned in for a grade must be your own individual work, and any sign of collaboration, plagiarism, or other unauthorized assistance will be regarded as cheating and may be turned to the Judicial Council for investigation. You may receive no help (no tutors, no friends, no translators [human, machine, or web-based]) in the preparation of your compositions or other written work. The ideas and the language must all be your own. If you are unacquainted with the exact meaning of plagiarism or have any doubts about the materials you are using, do not hesitate to ask me.


Plagiarism is academic theft. It refers to the use of another’s ideas or words without proper attribution or credit. An author’s work, either published in the traditional manner or posted in the Internet, is his/her property and should be respected by documentation. Credit must be given:

1. For every direct quotation (even if you are translating it or changing a couple of words).

2. When a work is paraphrased or summarized in whole or in part in your own words.

3.  For information which is not common knowledge.

See www.wfu.edu/english /major/academicwriting.html for more information about paper writing and a good, clear definition of plagiarism.


Romance Languages Department Guidelines for tutors (or other help).

  • In general terms, tutors should explain questions and problems and guide students’ work. They should not do the work for the students; nor should they translate (or encourage translation of) the material into English or from English.
  • Essays (“ensayos/trabajos escritos”) should be written completely by the student. By that we mean that students cannot consult with anyone about that assignment. Those essays should reflect what students have learned in class. To write them with the help of the tutor will not allow determining what students have learned on their own and how they are able to apply it.  Since we clearly specify that the work needs to be the student’s and no one else’s, the help of the tutor in those assignments will constitute an infraction of the honor code.

Additional Bibliography

Aínsa, Fernando. “La nueva novela histórica hispanoamericana.” Plural 240 (1991): 82-5. Print.

Alamán, Lucas. Historia de Méjico desde los primeros movimientos que prepararon su independencia en el ano de 1808, hasta la época presente. Mexico: Talleres Tipográficos de El Tiempo, 1989. Print.

Alonso, Carlos J. The Burden of Modernity: The Rhetoric of Cultural Discourse in Spanish America. New York: Oxford UP, 1998. Print.

Alter, Robert. Partial Magic: The Novel as a Self-Conscious Genre. Berkeley: U of California P, 1978. Print.

Anderson, Benedict R. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. ed. London and New York: Verso, 2006. Print.

Arias, Ángel. “Ibargüengoitia y la nueva novela histórica.” RILCE 17.1 (2001): 17-32. Print.

Arroyo, Jossianna. Travestismos culturales: literatura y etnografía en Cuba y Brasil. Pittsburgh: Insituto Internacional de Literatura Iberoamericana and U of Pittsburgh, 2003. Print.

Barrientos, Juan José. Ficción-historia: La nueva novela histórica hispanoamericana. Mexico: UNAM, 2001. Print.

Bhabha, Homi. “DissemiNation: Time, Narrative, and the Margins of the Modern Nation.” Nation and Narration. Ed. Homi K. Bhabha. London and New York: Routledge, 1990. 139-70. Print.

—. The Location of Culture. London and New York: Routledge, 1994. Print.

—. “Of Mimicry and Man: The Ambivalence of Colonial Discourse.” October 28 (1984): 125-33. Print.

Biron, Rebecca. “Joking Around with Mexican History: Parody in Ibargüengoitia, Castellanos, and Sainz.” Revista de Estudios Hispanos 34 (2000): 625-44. Print.

Blake, Linnie. The Wounds of Nations: Horror Cinema, Historical Trauma and National Identity. Manchester: Manchester UP, 2008. Print.

Bradu, Fabienne. “Noticias del imperio de Fernando del Paso.” Vuelta May 1988: 48-50. Print.

Brushwood, John S. México en su novela: Una novela en busca de su identidad. Mexico: FCE, 1973. Print.

—. Narrative Innovation and Political Change in Mexico. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 1989.

—. La novela mexicana, 1967-1982. Mexico: Grijalbo, 1985. Print.

Camp, Roderic Ai. Intellectuals and the State in Twentieth-Century Mexico. Austin: U of Texas P, 1985. Print.

—. “The Time of the Technocrats and Deconstruction of the Revolution.” The Oxford History of Mexico. Eds. Michael C. Meyer and William H. Beezley. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000. 609-36. Print.

Campesino, Juan. La historia como ironía: Ibargüengoitia como historiador. Guanajuato: Universidad de Guanajuato, 2005. Print.

Carballido, Emilio. “Drama y novela de Jorge Ibargüengoitia.” El atentado, Los relámpagos de agosto: edición crítica. Eds. Juan Villoro and Víctor Díaz Arciniega. Nanterre: ALLCA XX, Universite Paris X, 2002. 263-5. Print.

Castañón, Adolfo. “Noticias del imperio de Fernando del Paso.” Vuelta 142 (Sep 1988): 32-3. Print.

Clark, Stella T. and Alfonso González. “Noticias del imperio: La ‘verdad histórica’ y la novela finisecular en México.” Hispania 77 (1994): 731-37. Print.

Cohn, Deborah. “The Mexican Intelligentsia, 1950-1968: Cosmopolitanism, National Identity, and the State.” Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos 21.1 (2005): 141-82. Print.

Corral Peña, Elizabeth. Noticias del imperio y los nuevos caminos de la novela histórica. Jalapa: Universidad Veracruzana, 1997. Print.

Crankshaw, Edward. The Fall of the House of Habsburg. New York: Penguin, 1983. Print.

De Groot, Jerome. Consuming History: Historians and Heritage in Contemporary Popular Culture.  New York: Routledge, 2009. Print.

Díez Cobo, Rosa María. “La reescritura de la historia en la narrativa mexicana contemporánea.” Tendencias de la narrativa mexicana actual. Ed. José Carlos González Boixo. Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana / Vervuert, 2009. 31-87. Print.

Dresser, Denise and Jorge Volpi. México: Lo que todo ciudadanos quisiera (no) saber de su patria. Mexico: Santillana Ediciones Generales, 2006. Print.

Duncan, Robert. “Embracing a Suitable Past: Independence Celebrations under Mexico’s Second Empire, 1864-6.” Journal of Latin American Studies 30.2 (May 1998): 249-77. Print.

—. “Political Legitimation and Maximilian’s Second Empire in Mexico, 1864-1867.” Mexican Studies / Estudios Mexicanos 12.1 (1996): 27-66. Print.

Escalante, Evodio. “La ironía de Jorge Ibargüengoitia.” El atentado, Los relámpagos de agosto: edición crítica. Eds. Juan Villoro and Víctor Díaz Arciniega. Nanterre: ALLCA XX, Universite Paris X, 2002. 498-503. Print.

Fiddian, Robin W. The Novels of Fernando del Paso. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 2000. Print.

González Echevarría, Roberto. Myth and Archive: A Theory of Latin American Narrative. Durham: Duke UP, 1998. Print.

—. The Voice of the Masters. Austin: U of Texas P, 1985. Print.

Grützmacher, Lukasz. “Las trampas del concepto ‘la nueva novela histórica’ y de la retórica de la historia postoficial.” Arte Poética 27.1 (2006): 141-67. Print.

Guerrero, Elisabeth. Confronting History and Modernity in Mexican Narrative. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Print.

Hale, Charles A. Mexican Liberalism in the Age of Mora. New Haven: Yale UP, 1968. Print.

Herz, Theda. “Carnivalizing the Mexican Ethos: Comedic Gesture, Self-Deprecating Anecdote and the ‘Pobre Diablo’ in Jorge Ibargüengoitia’s Prose.” Romance Quarterly 43.1 (1996): 31-46. Print.

—. “Jorge Ibargüengoitia’s Carnival Pageantry: The Mexican Theatre of Power and the Power of Theatre.” Latin American Theatre Review 28.1 (1994): N. pag. Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 June 2011.

Honig, Bonnie. Democracy and the Foreigner. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP, 2001. Print.

Hutcheon, Linda. Narcissistic Narrative: The Metafictional Paradox. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier UP, 1980. Print.

—. A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction. New York: Routledge, 1988. Print.

Ibargüengoitia, Jorge. “La consumación: principio, no fin.” Instrucciones para vivir en México. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 1990. 36-8. Print.

—. “El grito, irreconocible.” Instrucciones para vivir en México. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 1990. 39-41. Print.

—. “El lado bueno de los próceres.” Instrucciones para vivir en México. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 1990. 22-4. Print.

—. “La conspiración vendida.” Teatro III. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 1987. 215-99. Print.

—. Los pasos de López. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 2004. Print.

—. Los relámpagos de agosto. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 2004. Print.

—. “Revitalización de los héroes.” Instrucciones para vivir en México. Mexico: Joaquín Mortiz, 1990. 34-5. Print.

Ibsen, Kristine. “Dissecting the Exquisite Cadaver: On Collections and Colonialism in Fernando del Paso’s Noticias del Imperio.” Bulletin of Spanish Studies LXXX.6 (2003): 715-28. Print.

—. Maximilian, Mexico, and the Invention of Empire. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP, 2010. Print.

—. “La poética del fragmento y el tercer espacio de la historia en Noticias del imperio de Fernando del Paso.” RILCE 22.1 (2006): 91-103. Print.

Jameson, Fredric. “Marx’s Purloined Letter.” Ghostly Demarcations: A Symposium on Jacques Derrida’s Specters of Marx. Ed. Michael Sprinkler. New York: Verso, 1999. 26-67. Print.

Jitrik, Noé. Historia e imaginación literaria: Las posibilidades de un género. Buenos Aires: Editorial Biblios, 1995. Print.

Juan-Navarro, Santiago. Archival Reflections: Postmodern Fiction of the Americas (Self-Reflexivity, Historical Revisionism, Utopia). Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 1999. Print.

Krauze, Enrique. Siglo de caudillos: biografía política de México (1810-1910). Mexico: Tusquets, 2002. Print.

Layera, Ramón. “Mecanismos de fabulación y mitificación de la historia en las ‘comedias impolíticas’ y las Coronas de Rodolfo Usigli.” Latin American Theater Review 18.2 (Spring 1985): 49-55. Print.

Lomnitz, Claudio. Deep Mexico, Silent Mexico: An Anthropology of Nationalism. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2001. Print.

Long, Ryan F. Fictions of Totality: The Mexican Novel, 1968, and the National-Popular State. West Lafayette: Purdue UP, 2008. Print.

Lukács, Georg. The Historical Novel. Rev. ed. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 1983. Print.

Lyotard, Jean-François. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Trans. Bennington, Geoff and Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1984. Print.

Martínez Assad, Carlos. “El revisionismo histórico por medio de la novela.” Ibargüengoitia, Jorge. El atentado, Los relámpagos de agosto: edición crítica. Eds. Juan Villoro and Víctor Díaz Arciniega. Nanterre: ALLCA XX, Universite Paris X, 2002. 228-45. Print.

Maximilian of Austria. Reglamento para el servicio y ceremonial de la Corte. Mexico: J. M. Lara, 1865. Print.

Menton, Seymour. Latin America’s New Historical Novel. Austin: U of Texas P, 1993. Print.

Miller, Nicola. In the Shadow of the State: Intellectuals and the Quest for National Identity in Twentieth-Century Spanish America. New York: Verso, 1999. Print.

—. “The Politics of Posing.” Ed. Sylvia Molloy and Robert McKee Irwin. Hispanisms and Homosexualities. Durham: Duke UP, 1998. 141-60. Print.

Morgan, Edmund Sears. Inventing the People: The Rise of Popular Sovereignty in England and America. New York: Norton, 1988. Print.

Ochoa, John A. The Uses of Failure in Mexican Literature and Identity. Austin: U of Texas P, 2004. Print.

Osuna Osuna, Gabriel. Literatura e historia en la novela mexicana de fin de siglo. Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, 2008. Print.

Pani, Erika. Para mexicanizar el segundo imperio: el imaginario político de los imperialistas. Mexico: Colegio de México and Centro de Estudios Históricos, 2001. Print.

Parkinson Zamora, Lois. The Usable Past: The Imagination of History in Recent Fiction of the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997. Print.

Pastor Bodmer, Beatriz. The Armature of Conqest: Spanish Accounts of the Discovery of America, 1492-1589. Trans. Lydia Longstreth Hunt. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1992. Print.

Perkowska, Magdalena. Historias híbridas. La nueva novela histórica latinoamericana (1985-2000) ante las teorías posmodernas de la historia. Madrid and Frankfurt: Iberoamericana / Vervuert, 2008. Print.

Piérola, José de. “At the Edge of History: Notes for a Theory of the Historical Novel in Latin America.” Romance Studies 26.2 (Apr. 2008): 151-62. Print.

Pons, María Cristina. “Noticias del imperio: Entre la imaginación delirante y los desvaríos de la historia.” Hispamerica 23.69 (Dec. 1994): 97-108. Print.

Quackenbush, L. Howard. El “López” de Jorge Ibargüengoitia: Historia, teatro y autorreflexibilidad. Mexico: CONACULTA, 1992. Print.

Quemain, Miguel Ángel. “Entrevista con Fernando del Paso: La exhuberante brevedad.” <http://www.literatura.inba.gob.mx/literaturainba/escritores/escritores_more.php?id=5787_0_15_0_M&gt;. Web. 24 June 2011.

Renan, Ernst. “What Is a Nation?” Trans. Martin Thom. Becoming National: A Reader. Eds. Geoff Eley and Ronald Grigor Suny. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1996. 41-55. Print.

Rodríguez Cadena, María de los Ángeles. “Los pasos de López y el ‘relajo literario’ de la Independencia de México de 1810.” Bulletin of Hispanic Studies 85.5 (Sep. 2008): 695-716. Print.

Rodríguez Marcos, Javier. “Entrevista: Ignacio Solares: El novelista llena los huecos que deja la historia.” El País. 18 Mar. 2006. Web. 24 Jun. 2011.

Runia, Eelco. “Spots of Time.” History & Theory 45.3 (Oct. 2006): 305-16. Print.

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